Title does not exceed more than 20 words, uses descriptive sentences associated strongly with the content, and should be short and unambiguous. Title includes author’s complete name, affiliation, complete address for correspondence, telephone number, fax number, and email address. Title should contain the keywords. In descriptive study, the title may include place and period of study. It depends on the essential factors, especially for a result that may not be generalizable to other location
Abstract is written under the IMRAD structure: Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion and Conclusion. Abstract is written in one paragraph, does not exceed 250 words, summarizes the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence :
- the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), state the purpose very clearly in the last sentence of the Introduction section
- the experimental design and methods used (Methods section)
- the major findings including key quantitative results, or trends, along with a brief summary of your interpretations (Results And Discussion section)
-clearly state the implications of the answers the entire research gave you, not the results of the statistical analysis (Conclusion section
All acronyms or abbreviations in the abstract are defined when first mentioned, and the acronyms or abbreviations are written in parentheses afterward. Abstract contains 3–5 keywords.
Establish the context of the work being reported by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating. State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated. Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal.
Describe the organism(s) used in the study.
FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY: Describe the site where your field study was conducted.
FOR LABORATORY STUDIES: You need NOT report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility.
Describe your experimental design clearly. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings (as their citation). Mention approval from Ethical Committee.
Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. The information should include:statistical software used, how the data were summarized (Means, percentage, etc.) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD, SEM, 95% CI, etc.), which data transformations were used (e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances), statistical tests used concerning the particular questions, or kinds of questions, you address, any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the data, what probability (a priori) was used to decide significance; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha.
Objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and Figures). Report your results to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences, or directionality, or magnitude. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.
Statistical test summaries (test name, p-value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone and the use and over-use of the word "significant".
Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. Report negative results. Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.
Interpret your results in light of what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after considering your results.
Fundamental questions to answer in Discussion section include:
- Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings?
- Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps an unforeseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?)
- What is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction?
You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. Do not introduce new results in the Discussion.
The outcome of the statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what our key result is.
Do not simply summarize the points already made in the body — instead, interpret your findings at a higher level of abstraction.
Make the Conclusion interesting and memorable for readers.