Journal of Medicine and Health <p>Journal of Medicine and Health (JMH) is an open access journal, published biannually on every February and August. JMH receives original research articles, case report, and review articles related&nbsp;to biomedical sciences, clinical medicine, public health sciences, nutritional sciences, and medical herbs sciences. Articles should be written in good English or Indonesian language. All articles will be processed through peer review process.</p> <p>We are pleased to announce that JMH&nbsp;has been&nbsp;<strong>accredited</strong>&nbsp;by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic Indonesia with Decree No. 21/E/KPT/2018. JMH was accepted at the&nbsp;<strong>S4</strong>&nbsp;level in&nbsp;<strong>SINTA</strong>&nbsp;(<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science and Technology Index</a>).</p> <p><strong>Published by :</strong></p> <p>Faculty of Medicine, Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, Indonesia&nbsp;</p> <p>e-ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2442-5257</a></p> Universitas Kristen Maranatha en-US Journal of Medicine and Health 2442-5257 Prevalence of Delirium and Its Clinical Outcome in Adult Filipino Patients Admitted in The Intensive Care Unit <p>Delirium is common in the ICU setting and is associated with increased morbidity, manpower requirement, and costs. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of delirium and its outcome in terms of 14-days mortality and length of ICU stay in ICU patients. The study was done at a 150-bed tertiary teaching hospital, located in Quezon City, Metro Manila, February to September 2016. This is a prospective studyinvolving 136 adults. Screening for delirium was done within 24 hours of ICU admission using both CAM-ICU scoring method and DSM-IV-TR criteria for delirium. Delirium prevalence was found to be 5.15%. The average age was higher in the subjects positive for delirium (70.14 + 21.15 years versus 60.43 + 16.10 years, p=0.1286). At the time of ICU admission, 11.54% of sedated patients were positive for delirium compared to 3.64% of non-sedated patients, p=0.1513 ;OR 3.457. Delirium was associated with higher 14 days mortality (OR 16.8, p=0.0212). Subjects positive for delirium had 2.74 longer days average ICU stay compared to the other group, with p=0.026. We concluded delirium was associated with higher 14-days mortality and longer ICU stay.</p> <p><br>Keywords : delirium, prevalence, Intensive Care Unit</p> Abram P Tanuatmadja Jacqueline R Vea ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1106 Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos K448 in D-Major 2nd Movement Improves Short-Term Memory and Concentration <p>Rhythm, melody, and high frequencies in Mozart’s music are capable to stimulate creativity and motivation regions of the brain and activate brain’s areas, especially the prefrontal area of the brain, which contributes to short-term memory. Listening to Mozart ‘s music can enhance concentration because it stimulates alpha brain waves which induce relaxation and peaceful mood. The objectives of this study were to determine the Mozart’s effect towards short-term memory and concentration. This is a quasi-experimental study using pre- and post-test design, performed to 30 adult women aged between 19-24 years old. The measured data were memorized words from recall memory test and duration to finish traffic jam puzzle, before and after listening to Mozart Sonata K448 for Two Pianos in D-major 2nd Movement. Data were analyzed using paired t-test with ? = 0.05.The results showed that there is a significant difference of words remembered before and after listening to music (35,43±6,70444 vs 73±4,727; p&lt;0,01) and duration to finish traffic jam puzzle (125,60±149,939vs 53,67±69,652 seconds ; p&lt;0,01). We concluded that Mozart’s music improves short-term memory and concentration.</p> <p><br>Keywords: Mozart’s sonata, short-term memory,concentration</p> Yenni Limyati Roro Wahyudianingsih Revy D Maharani Maria T Christabella ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1127 Correlation of Glasgow Coma Scale Score at Hospital Admission with Stroke Hemorrhagic Patient Mortality at Hasan Sadikin Hospital <p><em>Stroke is the most common cause of death in Indonesia. Stroke is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke has a higher risk of death than ischemic stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke can disrupt patient’s consciousness. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a scale that is widely used to assess level of consciousness. Accurate predictors can help doctors determine prognosis and treatment for stroke patient. This study was conducted to determine the correlation of GCS scores at the time of hospital admission and mortality of hemorrhagic stroke patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital. This study is a retrospective cohort analytic study involving 134 subjects. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s and Fisher's analysis test with significance of p &lt;0.05. From the results of the study, the p value was 0.00, subjects with GCS score somnolence (12-14) had six times higher risk in mortality (P = 0.02, RR = 6.38) and subjects with GCS score sopor and coma (3 - 11) had twenty four times higher risk in mortality (P = 0.00, RR = 23.85). We concluded that decreased score of SKG at the time of hospital admission was associated with increased risk of death in hemorrhagic stroke patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Keywords: Glasgow Coma Scale, hemorrhagic stroke, mortality</em></p> Ary Setio Hartanto Andi Basuki Cep Juli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1139 Effects of Paretic Single Limb Exercise on Vascular Characteristics Changing of Bilateral Femoral Arteries on Sub Acute Stroke Patients <p>After a stroke, individuals have weakness and decrease mobility of the hemiparetic side, which demands less muscle oxygen consumption; thus, blood flow decrease. It interferes the hemodynamic system include vascular characteristics.The single limb (quadriceps) exercise intervention was aerobic training that focused only on the hemiparetic limb. The aims of this study was to determine the effects of the single limb exercise on vascular characteristics of both side femoral arteries using pre and post-interventional study. Twelve participants in subacute phase of stroke, performed endurance exercise using N-K table on the hemiparetic leg three times a week for eightweeks. The diameter, peak systolic velocity (PSV), total average maximal velocity (TA Max) of both side femoral arteries were measured. We found that the changing of vascular characteristics outcomes on both side femoral arteries were not statistically significant increased. Others factors that may impede vascular characteristics in both femoral arteries were blood viscosity, aging process and periods of exercise.</p> <p><br>Keywords: femoral arteries, paretic, stroke, vascular characteristics</p> Wiwiet Irmayanti Novitri Novitri Dian M Sari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1253 The Effect of Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) Leaves and Melinjo Peel Extracts on Induced-Hyperuricemia Male Rats Model <p><em>Hyperuricemia is condition which blood uric acid levels increase, in men are greater than 7 mg/dL and in women over 6 mg/dL. In Indonesia the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 32% in people under 34 years and increases every year</em><em>. </em><em>Beside an </em>emping<em> from melinjo seed there is Indonesian meals made from mixture of seed, peel and leaves of melinjo, namely as </em>sayur asem<em>. Consumption a lot of emping can induced hyperuricemia. This study aims to assess the effect of melinjo leaves and peel extracts to reduce uric acid levels on melinjo seed hyperuricemia male rats model. <strong>Methods</strong>: Induction was performed by giving high purine diet, melinjo seed crude drug (emping) 4.5 g/kg bw. Ethanol extracts of melinjo leaves and melinjo peel were administered in 3 doses. <strong>Results: </strong>Ethanol leaves extract of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) 36 mg/kg bw could decrease uric acid levels up to 61.04%, while ethanol peel extract of melinjo 13 mg/kg bw can decrease uric acid levels up to 31.25%. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>&nbsp;Melinjo seed crude drug (emping) could increase the bloods uric acid level in rats up to 4.65 mg/dL. Ethanol leaves and peel extracts of melinjo could decrease uric acid blood levels in hyperuricemia rats.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em> : </em><em>Gnetum gnemon L., seed, leaves, peel, antihyperuricemia</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Nia K Sari Andreanus A Soemardji Irda Fidrianny ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1840 The Effect of Classical and Jazz Background-Music on Concentration and Reading Comprehension in Young Adult Women <p>Classical and jazz music activates ? brain wave that stimulate the excretion of ?-endorphins that has a role in increasing the alertness and attention. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of classical and jazz background-music to the concentration and reading comprehension. This is a quasi experimental study, with pre-test and post-test design, performed on 30 young adult women. The measured data were Addition and reading comprehension test scores before and while listening to music. Data were analyzed using paired t-test with and non paired t-test with ?=0.05. The results showed that there were highly significant differences of Addition Test score (547.73) and reading comprehension test score (80.33) with classical music background; Addition Test score (577.47) and reading comprehension test score (78.33) with jazz music background compared to pre-treatment of classical (457.57; 61.67) (p&lt;0.01); and jazz music (538.07; 65.00) (p&lt;0.01) respectively. The comparison of both types of music showed no difference of Addition Test score and reading comprehension test score (p&gt;0.05). We concluded classical and jazz background music improve concentration and reading comprehension in young adult women, with no significant differences in both types of background music.</p> <p><br>Keywords: concentration, reading comprehension, background music, classical, jazz</p> Harijadi Pramono Julia W Gunadi Oeij A Adhika Yenni Limyati Herlina Gisela Vica C Dewi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1826 The Effect of Acupressure Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea <p>Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a respiratory disorder during sleep with characteristics of temporary breathing cessation and upper airway obstruction that recurred partially or completely. Obesity has been recorded as one important risk factor in OSA. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of acupressure therapy in OSA. This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test one group design. Respondents were 18 high school students with BMI &gt; 25 kg/m2. OSA was assesed using Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Acupressure therapy was done at 10 acupoints for 10 consecutive days. Data was analyzed using dependent t test. The results showed Epworth Sleepiness Scale score decreased significantly after acupressure therapy procedure (6.78 vs 5.28; p value 0.004). Conclusion, acupressure therapy can reduce the severity of OSA.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: acupressure, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea</p> Galih Jatnika Susilawati Hartanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1816 Effective Dose of Rosella Calyx Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) against Liver Marker Enzymes and Liver Histopathological of High-Fat Feed-Induced Rats <p>Liver disease is a disease caused by various factors that damage the liver, such as viruses, obesity and alcohol consumption. Many studies have been done to find natural remedies for this disease, one of which is Rosella. In this research, the effective dose of ethanol extract of rosella calyx (EERC) was conducted, in high-fat feed (HFF)-induced rats. The aim of this study was to determine the effective dose of EEKR based on parameters:liver histopathological, Alanine Transferase (ALT) and Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) level. The study was conducted on 30 male Wistar rats, which were divided into five treatment groups. As results, histopathological observations showed a significant decrease in cloudy swelling scores at EERC 200 mg/KgBW/d, decreased steatosis scores at doses of 200, 400, 600 mg; whereas ballooning degeneration, lobular inflammation, and fibrosis scores did not decrease. EERC 200, 400, 600 mg/KgBW/d significantly decreased ALT (p ? 0.01); while doses of 400 and 600 mg reduce GGT. Conclusions, effective dose of EEKR for liver disease based on histopathological features of liver, ALT and GGT in HFF- induced Wistar rats is dose of 200 - 400 mg /KgBW/day.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: effective dose, Rosella, histopathologic, Alanine Transferase, Gamma Glutamyl Transferase</p> Meilinah Hidayat Oeij A Adhika Fenny Tanuwijaya Adisurya Nugraha Ricky B Hutagalung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1827 Compound Open Depressed Displaced Frontal Bone and Supraorbital Rim Fracture and Its Associated Injury: A Case Report <p><em>Compound open depressed displaced frontal bone and supraorbital rim fracture was an uncommon variant of skull fractures and present a management challenge due to their anatomy and potential associated injuries, including intracerebral hematoma, extraocular muscle injury, and traumatic optic neuropathy. We presented a case of 22 years old male with multiple trauma including moderate head injury presented to our emergency unit with a decrease of consciousness and seizures. The initial GCS was E3M6V4 (13/15). Head CT Scan demonstrated a displaced depressed fracture at left frontotemporal with adjacent intracerebral hemorrhage and cerebral prolapse. The patient underwent an emergency surgery. The fragmented bones were removed, we left the prolapse untouched, followed by duraplasty using a pericranial flap, and we fixed the fragmented supraorbital rim. Within 24 hours follow up, the patient already gains a full consciousness (GCS 15/15). The patient discharged after 3 days hospitalization with stable neurological condition. We concluded proper emergency surgery, removal of bone fragments and fixation on the superior orbital rim contributed to an optimal outcome.</em></p> <p><em><br>Keywords: open depressed fractures, supraorbital rim, frontal bone<br></em></p> Ingrid A Widjaya Bilzardy F Zulkifli Muhammad Z Arifin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1836 Potential Effects of Alkaloid vindolicine Substances in Tapak Dara Leafs (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) in Reducing Blood Glucose Levels <p><em>Diabetes mellitus is a degenerative disease that commonly found and related to an unhealthy lifestyle and genetic factors. Current management of diabetes mellitus includes control of blood sugar levels and prevention of complications. Recent studies found that many phytochemicals have the potential to control blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes. Alkaloid substances from leaves of Tapak Dara have an effect on decreasing blood glucose. This review article aims to describe the potential effects of the Alkaloid vindolicine from Tapak Dara leaves (Catharanthus Roseus L.) in reducing blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The activity of vindolicine alkaloid against ? cells in previous studies has shown to improve ? cells activity and induce insulin secretion thus preventing further hyperglycemia. In addition, the vindolicine alkaloid also has a role in activating pancreatic ?-TC6 cells and carrying out an immediate reaction in blood vessels. As conclusion, further research is needed to prove the maximum effect of the utilization of tread leaf extract as well as the toxicity test to determine the toxic effects of the alkaloid substances in the tread leaf.</em></p> <p><em><br>Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Vindolicine Alkaloid, Tapak Dara, blood glucose<br>levels</em></p> Agung B S Satyarsa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1057 Antibacterial Effect of Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Peel Extract in Preventing Biofilm Formation <p><em>The routine and long term use of chemicals to maintain oral and dental health have the potency to result in the emergence of side effects; therefore another strategy is needed as an alternative such as using antimicrobial agents extracted from plants. The purpose of this study is to review the effectiveness of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) peel extract as an antibacterial in preventing biofilm formation. Biofilm is a component consisting of bacteria in a self-produced polymeric matrix, attached to an inert surface, alive, and can survive because of its ability to capture nutrients and withstand adverse environmental conditions. Lime peel contains flavonoids which are the largest group of polyphenol compounds that can work as antioxidants and antibacterial by denaturing bacterial cell proteins and damaging bacterial cells. Flavonoids can also inhibit glucosyltransferase (GTF) activity of Streptococcus mutans to prevent biofilm formation. Lime peel extract inhibits the formation of the activity of the enzyme Streptococcus mutans. As a conclusion lime peel extract contains compounds with therapeutic potential and has the effect of inhibiting the formation of the activity of the enzyme Streptococcus mutans so that it can be used to inhibit the formation of biofilms.</em></p> <p><em><br>Keywords: antibacterial, biofilm, Citrus aurantifolia</em></p> Jeffrey Jeffrey Mieke H Satari Dikdik Kurnia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1841 PEER REVIEW <p>We would like to thank our peer reviewers for the precious contributions in providing clinical, scientific, and methodological expertise for JMH Volume 2 Number 4 August 2019. We appreciate every thoughtful review of submitted manuscripts and for making important contributions to improve the scientific quality of articles published in JMH. We listed the names in alphabetical order.<br>Ade Kurnia,dr.,SpKJ<br>DR Agung Budi,dr.,Sp.BS<br>Benjamin J. Tanuwihardja, dr., SpP, FCCP.<br>Cherry Azaria,dr.,M.Kes<br>Decky Gunawan,dr.,M.Kes,AIFO<br>Demes Chornelia Martantiningtyas,S.Si.,M.Sc<br>Dewi Karita,dr.,M.Sc<br>DR.Diana Krisanti Jasaputra, dr.,M.Kes<br>dr Dono, Sp.B<br>Drs. Eko Suhartono, M.Sc<br>Juwita Raditya Ningsih,drg.,M.Sc<br>Fanny Rahardja,dr.,M.Si<br>Fathul Huda, dr., Ph.D.<br>Heddy Herdiman,dr.,M.Kes<br>Julia Windi Gunadi,dr.,M.Kes<br>Lusiana Darsono,dr., M.Kes.<br>DR.Med. Muhammad Hasan Bashari, dr., M.Kes.<br>Noveline,dr.,Sp.S<br>Dr. Oeij Anindita Adhika, dr., M Kes.<br>Prof. dr. Wahyuni Lukita Atmadja, PhD<br>Stella Tinia Hasianna,dr.,M.Kes,IBCLC<br>Susan Irawati, B.Biomed Sc., M.Biomed Sc.<br>DR. Teresa Liliana W, S.Si., M.Kes., PA(K)<br>DR.Titik Respati,drg., MScPH<br>Yenni Limyati,dr.,S.Sn,Sp.KFR<br>Yuktiana Kharisma,dr.,M.Kes</p> Editorial Team ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 2 4 10.28932/jmh.v2i4.1848